HealthSelf Care

Brain Haemorrhages

Bleeding on the Brain

Brain bleeds – bleeding between the brain tissue and skull or within the brain tissue itself – can
cause brain damage and be life-threatening. Some symptoms include headache, nausea and
vomiting, or sudden tingling, weakness, numbness or paralysis of face, arm or leg.
Can a person survive a brain haemorrhage? Some patients recover completely. Possible
complications include stroke, loss of brain function, seizures, or side effects from medications or
treatments. Death is possible, and may quickly occur despite prompt medical treatment.
The warning signs of a brain haemorrhage are the following. A severe headache that comes out of
nowhere (often described as the worst headache one has ever felt). Blurred vision, feeling
nauseated, throwing up, seizure, a stiff neck, sensitivity to light and double vision are other
warning signs.

If an artery in the brain bleeds directly within the brain tissue, it is known as an intracerebral
hemorrhage. This type of stroke is often simply called a “brain hemorrhage.” The blood that
flows out presses against the tissue from the inside and pinches off other blood vessels in that

Although a brain bleed can be fatal, recovery is possible. A person may also experience
long-term complications, such as epilepsy, or memory problems.
Bleeding in the brain has a number of causes, including: head trauma, caused by a fall, car
accident, sports accident or other type of blow to the head. High blood pressure (hypertension),
which can damage the blood vessel walls and cause the blood vessel to leak or burst.
In some people, the brain shrinks (often from aging) and the subdural space gets bigger. This can
make the blood vessels more likely to break. In people 50 and older, subdural hematomas can be
present for days or weeks.

These three types of bleeding, or haemorrhaging, differ not only in location but also in how they
flow and their severity. Specifically, arterial bleeding comes out in spurts, venous bleeding flows
steadily, and capillary bleeding trickles from the body. Bleeding from the arteries and veins can
be severe.

Can stress cause brain haemorrhage? The authors of the case report, as well as another study,
suggested that sharp increases in blood pressure due to acute mental stress can cause intracranial
vessels to rupture [9,10]. The pathophysiology of stress-induced SAH may be like that of
Takotsubo syndrome, a type of cardiomyopathy.
The most common symptom of a brain bleed is a sudden onset headache, which most patients
describe as the worst headache of their life. “Even people with migraines tell you this headache
is worse than any migraine,” he says. Even some stroke patients will describe having a bad
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the subtype of stroke with the highest disability rate among
survivors. ICH has a 40% to 50% mortality rate within 30 days, Two-fold that of ischemic
stroke, one with only 27% of patients being functionally independent at 90 days.
A hemorrhagic (pronounced “hem-or-aj-ick”) stroke is a life-threatening medical condition that
happens when a blood vessel in your brain ruptures and bleeds. This can disrupt the normal
circulation of blood in your brain, starving some areas of oxygen.
Adults will have the majority of their recovery during the first six months. Then you might have
smaller, more-gradual improvements for up to two years after the hematoma. To aid your
recovery: Get enough sleep at night, and rest in the daytime when you feel tired.
Usually, we need to monitor you in hospital for 2 weeks following hemorrhage, but the length of
stay will depend on the severity of the bleed, any complications and recovery. Some patients may
require further rehabilitation for physical disabilities.
The four types of brain bleed are intracranial hemorrhage which encompasses four broad types of
hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and
intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Each type of hemorrhage results from different etiologies and the
clinical findings, prognosis, and outcomes are variable.
Surgery: In some cases, traditional surgery may be needed to drain blood from the brain or to
repair damaged blood vessels. Draining the fluid that surrounds the brain: This creates room for
the hematoma to expand without damaging brain cells. Medication: Drugs are used to control
blood pressure, seizures or headaches.
Replacing lost blood and fluids is important in treating postpartum hemorrhage. You may
quickly be given IV (intravenous) fluids, blood, and blood products to prevent shock. Oxygen
may also help. Postpartum hemorrhage can be quite serious.

If this bulge (aneurysm) bursts, blood enters and damages the brain. When this happens, it is
referred to as a hemorrhagic stroke. While brain aneurysms are less frequent than ischemic
strokes, they are more deadly.
Does the brain heal after a brain bleed? Dr. Wiles says, “Recovery is very dependent on location
of the bleeding within the brain, the size of the bleeding and the general health of the patient
prior to the stroke. Some recovery can be a matter of a few days, and others can take months. In
general, healing of the complex function of the brain can be a slow process.”
Some patients recover fully after the bleeding if proper treatment is provided, but others survive
with various complications. Possible complications that the patients could endure include loss of
brain function, stroke, and adverse reactions to medications.
You may ask yourself the question, what are the 5 stages of hemorrhage? Five distinct stages of
hemorrhage can be defined: hyperacute (intracellular oxyhemoglobin, long T1 and T2), acute
(intracellular deoxyhemoglobin, long T1, short T2), early subacute (intracellular methemoglobin,
short T1, short T2), late subacute (extracellular methemoglobin, short T1, long T2), and chronic.
Grade 4 is also called an intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Blood clots can form and block the flow
of cerebrospinal fluid. This can lead to increased fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus).
Intracerebral hemorrhage (bleeding into the brain tissue) is the second most common cause of
stroke (15-30% of strokes) and the most deadly. Blood vessels carry blood to and from the brain.
Amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
(MDMA, or ‘ecstasy’), methcathinone, and ephedrine) and cocaine are the most common drugs
of abuse associated with intracerebral hemorrhage, particularly in young patients.







By Abigail George

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